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Home Topics Infectious Diseases Infections A-Z Pandemic Influenza H1N1 (2009) pandemic archive Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: HPA Research

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: HPA Research

A row of books

This section contains links to publications authored or co-authored by HPA scientists, particularly epidemiological and virological studies developed following the emergence of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza.



Surviellance and Epidemiology

Enstone JE, Myles PR, Openshaw PJM, Gadd EM, Lim WS, Semple MS, et al. Nosocomial pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010. Emerg Infect Dis 2011 Apr; [Epub ahead of print]DOI: 10.3201/eid1704.101679

Hardelida P, Andrews N, Pebody R. Excess mortality monitoring in England and Wales during the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic Epidemiology and Infection 2011. [Epub ahead of print]: DOI: 10.1017/S0950268811000410.

Bewick T, Myles P, Greenwood S, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Brett SJ, Semple MG. Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing pandemic H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia from interpandemic community-acquired pneumonia in adults.Thorax 2011 66:247-252 published online: doi:10.1136/thx.2010.151522

Troko J, Myles P, Gibson J, Hashim A, Enstone J, Kingdon S et al Is public transport a risk factor for acute respiratory infection? BMC Infectious Diseases 2011; Jan 14, 11:16.

Elliot AJ, Powers C, Thornton A, Obi C, Hill C, Simms I. Monitoring the emergence of community transmission of influenza A/H1N1 2009 in England: a cross sectional opportunistic survey of self sampled telephone callers to NHS Direct.BMJ 2009 Aug 27;339:b3403. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b3403.

Health Protection Agency and Health Protection Scotland new influenza A(H1N1) investigation teams. Epidemiology of new influenza A(H1N1) in the United Kingdom, April – May 2009.Euro Surveill 2009;14(19):pii=19213.

Health Protection Agency, Health Protection Scotland, National Public Health Service for Wales, HPA Northern Ireland Swine influenza investigation teams. Epidemiology of new influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, United Kingdom, April – June 2009.Euro Surveill 2009;14(22):pii=19232.

Elliot AJ. Syndromic surveillance: the next phase of public health monitoring during the H1N1 influenza pandemic?. Euro Surveill 2009;14(44):pii=19391 

Pebody RG, McLean E, Zhao H, Cleary P, Bracebridge S, Foster K, Charlett A, Hardelid P, Waight P, Ellis J, Bermingham A, Zambon M, Evans B, Salmon R, McMenamin J, Smyth B, Catchpole M and Watson J M. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 and mortality in the United Kingdom: risk factors for death, April 2009 to March 2010. Euro Surveill 2010;15(20):pii=19571.

LJ Donaldson, PD Rutter, BM Ellis, FEC Greaves, OT Mytton, RG Pebody, IE Yardley.Mortality from pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza in England: public health surveillance study.BMJ 2009; 339:b5213 

Donaldson LJ, Rutter PD, Ellis BM, Greaves FE, Mytton OT, Pebody RG, Yardley IE.English mortality from A/H1N1. Comparisons with recent flu mortality.BMJ 2010; Feb 2;340:c612. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c612.

McLean E, Pebody RG, Campbell C, Chamberland M, Hawkins C, Nguyen Van-Tam JS.Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in the UK: clinical and epidemiological findings from the first few hundred (FF100) cases.Epidemiology and Infection 2010; 138: 1531-1541. 

Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Openshaw PJ, Hashim A, Gadd EM, Lim WS, Semple MG.Risk factors for hospitalisation and poor outcome with pandemic A/H1N1 influenza: United Kingdom first wave (May-September 2009).Thorax 2010; Jul;65(7):645-51.

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus outbreak in a school in London, April–May 2009: an observational study. Epidemiology and Infection 2010; 138: 183-191.doi:10.1017/S0950268809991191

Smith A, Coles S, Johnson S, Saldana L, Ihekweazu C, O’Moore E. An outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)v in a boarding school in South East England, May-June 2009. 
Euro Surveill 2009;14(27):pii=19263. 

Health Protection Agency West Midlands H1N1v Investigation Team. Preliminary descriptive epidemiology of a large school outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)v in the West Midlands, United Kingdom, May 2009.
Euro Surveill 2009;14(27):pii=19264.

Kar-Purkayastha I, Ingram C, Maguire H, Roche A. The importance of school and social activities in the transmission of influenza A(H1N1)v: England, April – June 2009.Euro Surveill 2009;14(33):pii=19311.

Campbell CNJ, Mytton OT, McLean EM,  Rutter PD, Pebody RG, Sachedina N et al.Hospitalisation in two waves of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in England. Epidemiology and Infection 2010. [Epub ahead of print]: doi:10.1017/S0950268810002657

Mathematical Modelling

House T, Baguelin M, Van Hoek AJ, White PJ,Sadique Z, Eames K et al Modelling the impact of local reactive school closures on critical care provision during an influenza pandemic. Proc R Soc Med. Published online: February 2, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2688.

Jackson C, Mangtani P, Vynnycky E, Fielding K, Kitching A, Mohamed H et al.School closures and student contact patterns.Emerg Infect Dis 2011; Feb17(2):245-7.

Presanis AM, De Angelis D, Hagy A, Reed C, Riley S, et al. 2009 The Severity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: A Bayesian Analysis.PLoS Med 6(12): e1000207. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000207

Van Kerkhove MD, Asikainen T, Becker NG, Bjorge S, Desenclos J-C, et al. (2010) Studies Needed to Address Public Health Challenges of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic: Insights from Modeling. PLoS Med 7(6): e1000275. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000275

The WHO Informal Network for Mathematical Modelling for Pandemic Influenza H1N1 2009.  Studies to address public health challenges of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: insights from modelling.  PLoS Med:2010 June1:7(6):e 1000275.

Eames KT, Tilston NL, White PJ, Adams E, Edmunds WJ.The impact of illness and the impact of school closure on social contact patterns.Health Technology Assessment 2010; 14(34):267-312. doi: 10.3310/hta14340-04

Ghani AC, Baguelin M, Griffin J, Flasche S, Pebody R, van Hoek AJ et al.The early transmission dynamics of H1N1pdm influenza in the United Kingdom.PLoS Curr Influenza 2009; Nov 16:RRN1130

House T, Baguelin M, Jan van Hoek A, Flasche S, White P, Sadique Z et al. Can reactive school closure help critical care provision during the current influenza pandemic? PLoS Curr Influenza 2009; Oct 23:RRN 1119.

Baguelin M, Jan Van Hoek A, Jit M, Flasche S, White P, Edmunds WJ. Vaccination against pandemic influenza A/H1N1v in England: A real-time economic evaluation. Vaccine 2010; 28: pp. 2370-2384.

Tom BD, Van Hoek AJ, Pebody R, McMenamin J, Robertson C, Catchpole M et al. Estimating time to onset of swine influenza symptoms after initial novel A(H1N1v) viral infection.Epidemiology and  Infection 2010; Nov 19:1-7.

Keeling MJ, White PJ.Targeting vaccination against novel infections: risk, age and spatial structure for pandemic influenza in Great Britain. J. R. Soc. Interface published online 13 October 2010. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2010.0474

Operational Response and Antivirals

Balasegaram S, Glasswell A, Cleary V, Turbitt D, McCloskey B.From containment to community: Trigger points from the London pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza incident response.Public Health 2011; 125(2): 72-78.  

Cleary V, Balasegaram S, Keeling D, Turbitt D.H1N1:Organising  Response - Londons Flu Response Centre.Crisis Response Vol 6 Issue 2 p 26-27

Kitching A, Roche A, Balasegaram S, Heathcock R, Maguire H. Oseltamivir adherence and side effects among children in three London schools affected by influenza A(H1N1)v, May 2009 – an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Euro Surveill 2009;14(30):pii=19287. 

Wallensten A, Oliver I, Lewis D, Harrison S. Compliance and side effects of prophylactic oseltamivir treatment in a school in South West England. Euro Surveill 2009;14(30):pii=19285.

Cleary V, Balasegaram S, McCloskey B, Keeling D, Turbitt D.Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: Setting up a multiagency regional response centre - a toolkit for other public health emergencies.Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency planning Vol 4 No2 p151-161.

Walunj A, Thomson G, Gent N, Dunning J, BrettGlobal S. clinical networking and pandemic influenza. Journal of the Intensive Care Society 2010; 11(3): 165-170

Vaccination and Serology

Pebody R, Andrews N, Waight P, Malkani R, McCartney C, Ellis J, Miller E. No effect of 2008/09 seasonal vaccination on the risk of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza infection in the UK. Vaccine 2011. Mar 21;29(14):2613-8. Epub 2011 Feb 1.

Lavallade H de, Garland P, Sekine T, Hoschler K, Marin D ,Loucaides E et al. Repeated vaccination is required to optimise seroprotection against H1N1 in the immunocompromised host. Haematologica 2011; Feb;96(2):307-14.

Andrews N, Waight P, Yung CF, Miller E. Age-Specific Effectiveness of an Oil-in-Water Adjuvanted Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine Against Confirmed Infection in High Risk Groups in England. J Infect Dis 2011; Jan;203(1):32-9.

Nicholson KG, Abrams KR, Batham S, Clark TW, Hoschler K, Lim WS. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose schedule of whole-virion and AS03A-adjuvanted 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccines: a randomised, multicentre, age-stratified, head-to-head trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2011 (11) 91 - 101.

Robertson JS, Nicolson C, Harvey R, Johnson R, Major D, Guilfoyle et al.The development of vaccine viruses against pandemic A(H1N1) influenza.Vaccine 2011; 29:1836-1843.

Bate J, Yung CF, Hoschler K, Sheasby L, Morden J, Taj M et al.Immunogenicity of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine in Children with Cancer in the United Kingdom.Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51 (12): e95-e104. doi: 10.1086/657403  

Miller E, Hoschler K, Hardelid P, Stanford E, Andrews N, Zambon M.  Incidence of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection in England: a cross sectional study. The Lancet 2010; DO1:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)62126-7

Clark TW, Pareek M, Hoschler K, Dillon H, Nicholson KG, Groth N, et al. Trial of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent MF59-Adjuvanted Vaccine - Preliminary Report. NEJM 2009; 361(25): pp. 2424-2435.

Stowe J, Andrews N, Wise L, Miller E. Investigation of the Temporal Association of Guillain-Barré Syndrome With Influenza Vaccine and Influenza like Illness Using the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database.Am J Epidemiol 2009; 169(3):382-388.

Black S, Eskola J, Siegrist CA, Halsey N, Macdonald N, Law B et al. Importance of background rates of disease in assessment of vaccine safety during mass immunisation with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines.Lancet 2009; Dec 19;374(9707):2115-22.

Waddington CS, Walker WT, Oeser C, Reiner A, John T, Wilkins S.Safety and immunogenicity of AS03B adjuvanted split virion versus non-adjuvanted whole virion H1N1 influenza vaccine in UK children aged 6 months-12 years: open label, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study.BMJ 2010; May 27;340:c2649.

Chaplin S, Donati MC.Intanza: first intradermal influenza vaccine.Prescriber 2010; Aug 05; 21(15-16):12-14.

Minor PD. Vaccines against seasonal and pandemic influenza and the implications of changes in substrates for virus production.Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50 (4): 560-565.

Vajo Z, Wood JM, Kosa L, Szilvasy I, Paragh G, Pauliny Z et al.A Single-Dose Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine Safe and Immunogenic in Adult and Elderly Patients: an Approach to Pandemic Vaccine Development.J Virol 2010; 8; (3): 1237-1242.

Wood JM. The 2009 influenza pandemic begins. Influenza and Other Resp Viruses 2009; 3 (5) 197-198.

Brown KF; Kroll JS; Hudson MJ; Ramsay M; Green J; Vincent CA; Fraser G; Sevdalis N. (7 Jun 2010). Omission bias and vaccine rejection by parents of healthy children: implications for the influenza A/H1N1 vaccination programme. Vaccine 2010; 28:4181-4185.

Jit M, Cromer D, Baguelin M, Stowe J, Andrews N, Miller E.The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales.Vaccine 2010; 29(1):115-22.


Moore C, Galiano M, Lackenby A, Abdelrahman T, Barnes R, Evans MR.Evidence of person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in a hematology unit. J Infect Dis 2011 ;203(1):18-24.

Brookes D, Miah S, Lackenby A, Hartgroves L, Barclay WS.  Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus with the H275Y oseltamivir resistance neuraminidase mutation shows a small compromise in enzyme activity and viral fitness.J Antimicrob Chemother 2010 published online: December 16, 2010. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkq486.

Wu L-T, Curran MD, Ellis J, Parmar S, Ritchie AV, Sharma PI et al. Nucleic acid dipstick test: molecular diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1). J Clin Microbiol 2010;48(10):3608-13.

Ellis J, Iturriza M, Allen R, Bermingham A, Brown K, Gray J, Brown D. Evaluation of four real-time PCR assays for detection of influenza A(H1N1)v viruses. Euro Surveill 2009;14(22):pii=19230. 

Esposito S, Molteni CG, Colombo C, Daleno C, Daccò V, Lackenby A, Principi N. Oseltamivir-induced resistant pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus in a child with cystic fibrosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.J Clin Virol 2010 May;48(1):62-5. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Garland P; de Lavallade H; Sekine T; Hoschler K; Sriskandan S; Patel P; Brett S; Stringaris K; et al. Humoral and cellular immunity to primary H1N1 infection in patients with hematological malignancies and following stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2010;doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.08.002  

Wood JM. The 2009 influenza pandemic begins. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 2009; 3(5) 197–198.

Behaviour and Communication

van Hoek AJ, Underwood A, Jit M, Miller E, Edmunds WJ. The Impact of Pandemic Influenza H1N1 on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Population-Based Study. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(3): e17030. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017030

Rubin GJ, Amlôt R, Page L, Wessely S. Public perceptions, anxiety, and behaviour change in relation to the swine flu outbreak: cross sectional telephone survey. BMJ 2009; 339:b2651

Rubin GJ, Amlôt R, Carter H, Large S, Wessely S, Page L. Reassuring and managing patients with concerns about swine flu: qualitative interviews with callers to NHS Direct. BMC Public Health 2010;10:451.

Infection Control and Interventions

Gretorex JS, Page R F, Curran MD, Digard P, Enstone J E, Wreghitt T. Effectiveness of Common Household Cleaning Agents in Reducing the Viability of Human Influenza A/H1N1.PLoS One 2010; 1;5(2):e8987.

Beckett G & K Geary.Antiviral treatment and hygiene measures. Practice Nursing 2009 20(11) 552-554.


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