In 2012 since May, cases have been reported in these known endemic countries - Pakistan, India, Iran, Kosovo and Turkey. In October 2012, an imported case occurred in the UK in a person who had acquired infection in Afghanistan.
CCHF virus is the most widely distributed agent of severe haemorrhagic fever known, its range following the distribution of the tick host. Its geographic range is the most extensive among the tickborne viruses that affect human health, and major epidemics and outbreaks of CCHF have often occurred. The distribution covers over much of Asia, extending from the XinJiang region of western China to the Middle East and southern Russia. There are endemic areas over many parts of south-eastern Europe, and the Middle East. Cases are less commonly identified from the Africa, with the exception of South Africa.
Although Turkey is endemic for CCHF, cases do not occur in the Mediterranean region of the country. The first clinical case of CCHF was reported in Greece in July 2008. This occurred in the northeastern province of Macedonia and Thrace, close to the border with Turkey.
Figure 1: geographic distribution of CCHF
Cases have been reported in the following countries:
Southeastern Europe and Russian Federation - Ukraine, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia & Montenegro (Kosovo), Turkey, Macedonia, Russian Federation.
Asia - China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan
Middle East - Iraq, Iran, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Oman.
Africa - Mauritania, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Congo (Republic and Democratic Republic), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Namibia.
Last reviewed: 8 October 2012