Human infections are due to:
- Direct or indirect contact with infected animal blood (farmers, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians, etc)
- Tick bites
- Person to person transmission due to direct or indirect contact with body fluids of infected patients (including blood, vomitus, urine, stool, semen)
There is a seasonal occurrence in temperate climates from June to September (Spring to Autumn), corresponding to the period of vector activity.
Last reviewed: 4 July 2014