New data show sexually transmitted infection diagnoses on the rise in England
31 May 2012
Figures released today by the Health Protection Agency (HPA) show new sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses rose by two per cent in England in 2011, with nearly 427,000 new cases, reversing the small decline observed the previous year. Young heterosexual adults (15-24 years) and men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the groups at highest risk.
The annual HPA report found:
- The overall rise seen in 2011 was primarily driven by new diagnoses increasing in:
- Gonorrhoea (up by 25 per cent on 2010)
- Syphilis (up by 10 per cent)
- Genital herpes (up by five per cent)
- The largest upsurge in new diagnoses between 2010 and 2011 was seen in MSM:*
- Gonorrhoea increased by 61 per cent
- Chlamydia by 48 per cent
- Syphilis by 28 per cent
- Amongst heterosexuals overall rates remained highest in young adults (15-24 years old), accounting for:**
- 57 per cent of all new gonorrhoea diagnoses
- 56 per cent of all new genital warts diagnoses
- 43 per cent of all new genital herpes diagnoses
Dr Gwenda Hughes, head of STI surveillance at the HPA, said: “The 2011 data are a matter of concern regarding young heterosexuals and men who have sex with men. We anticipated some increase in diagnoses due to improvements in testing in recent years, but not on the scale seen here. These data show that too many people are putting themselves at risk of STIs and serious health problems by having unsafe sex.
“The rises in 2011 demonstrate it is crucial the work to reduce STIs continues. Improving awareness and encouraging safer sexual behaviour through health promotion and education is essential to helping prevent STIs. Coupled with this, ensuring easy access to sexual health services and STI screening is important for controlling the transmission of all STIs and needs to be focused on groups at highest risk.”
Dr Hughes added: “The importance of STI prevention and good sexual health becomes even clearer given emerging resistance to gonorrhoea treatment. Laboratory testing over the last five years has shown a large increase in the amount of resistance to the main drugs used to treat gonorrhoea, presenting the very real danger of untreatable gonorrhoea in the future.”
To combat the continuing high rates of STI transmission in England, and the growing risk of gonorrhoea treatment resistance it is essential to:
- Always use a condom when having sex with casual and new partners.
- Get tested regularly if you are in one of the highest risk groups:
- Sexually active under 25 year olds should be screened for chlamydia every year, and on change of sexual partner
- MSM having unprotected sex with casual or new partners should have an HIV/STI screen at least annually, and every three months if changing partners regularly.
Getting screened for HIV/STIs can lead to early identification and treatment, as often these infections have no symptoms. In addition, reducing the number of sexual partners and avoiding overlapping sexual relationships can reduce the risk of being infected with an STI.
Chlamydia is one of the most common STIs in young adults, often has no symptoms and can result in infertility. Although the 2011 data shows a four per cent drop in cases of chlamydia in young adults, from approximately 154,000 to 148,000 †, this is due to falling numbers of younger adults being screened, and consequently fewer cases being ascertained.
Dr Angie Bone, director of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme, said: “This is a trend we need to reverse. Our aim is to encourage all sexually active under 25 year olds to get screened every year, or on change of partner, so a hidden infection can be found and treated. Testing is simple, painless and available on the NHS for this group, from GPs, pharmacies, family planning clinics and sexual health clinics.”
* For cases in men where sexual orientation was recorded.
** Genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic data only. Percentages do not include community tests.
† Chlamydia diagnoses from GUM and community test data in young adults, all sexual orientations.
Notes to Editors
- For more information please contact the national HPA press office at Colindale on 0208 327 7901 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. Out of hours: 0208 200 4400.
- Annual STI data compiled for England from genitourinary clinics, and from other community-based settings screening for chlamydia. Full 2011 data set available from Thursday 31 May on HPA website or via the press office on 020 8327 7901/ email@example.com.
- It is likely that increased transmission through unsafe sexual behaviour contributed to this overall rise, especially among MSM. This is supported by the large increase in the number of genital warts cases in MSM in the last year, the ongoing Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) epidemic in older, HIV-positive MSM and outbreaks of other STIs in this group, such as Shigella.
- However, other factors have made a significant contribution to the rise in diagnoses over the last decade, including:
- Increased sexual health and chlamydia screening;
- Increased use of more sensitive molecular diagnostic tests for genital herpes diagnosis;
- Increased use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for gonorrhoea diagnosis (particularly for screening asymptomatic MSM at extra-genital sites);
- Improved gonococcal and chlamydial MSM infections detection due to the LGV epidemic;
- Improvements in sexual orientation reporting in recent years, leading to a greater number of diagnoses being assigned to MSM than previously.
- For more information on the National Chlamydia Screening Programme please visit the website [external link].
- The Health Protection Agency is an independent UK organisation that was set up by the government in 2003 to protect the public from threats to their health from infectious diseases and environmental hazards. In April 2013 the Health Protection Agency will become part of a new organisation called Public Health England, an executive agency of the Department of Health. To find out more, visit our website: www.hpa.org.uk or follow us on Twitter @HPAuk
Last reviewed: 30 May 2012